Machine learning (ML) can be used in computer vision, large language models (LLMs), speech recognition, self-driving cars, and many more use cases to make decisions in healthcare, human resources, finance, and other areas.
However, ML’s rise is complicated. ML validation and training datasets are generally aggregated by humans, who are biased and error-prone. Even if an ML model isn’t biased or erroneous, using it incorrectly can cause harm.
Diversifying enterprise AI and ML usage can help preserve a competitive edge. Distinct ML algorithms have distinct benefits and capabilities that teams can use for different jobs. IBM will cover the five main categories and their uses.
Define machine learning
ML is a computer science, data science, and AI subset that lets computers learn and improve from data without programming.
ML models optimize performance utilizing algorithms and statistical models that deploy jobs based on data patterns and inferences. Thus, ML predicts an output using input data and updates outputs as new data becomes available.
Machine learning algorithms recommend products based on purchasing history on retail websites. IBM, Amazon, Google, Meta, and Netflix use ANNs to make tailored suggestions on their e-commerce platforms. Retailers utilize chat bots, virtual assistants, ML, and NLP to automate shopping experiences.
Machine learning types
Supervised, unsupervised, semi-supervised, self-supervised, and reinforcement machine learning algorithms exist.
1.Supervised machine learning
Supervised machine learning trains the model on a labeled dataset with the target or outcome variable known. Data scientists constructing a tornado predicting model might enter date, location, temperature, wind flow patterns, and more, and the output would be the actual tornado activity for those days.
Several algorithms are employed in supervised learning for risk assessment, image identification, predictive analytics, and fraud detection.
- Regression algorithms predict output values by discovering linear correlations between actual or continuous quantities (e.g., income, temperature). Regression methods include linear regression, random forest, gradient boosting, and others.
- Labeling input data allows classification algorithms to predict categorical output variables (e.g., “junk” or “not junk”). Logistic regression, k-nearest neighbors, and SVMs are classification algorithms.
- Naïve Bayes classifiers enable huge dataset classification. They’re part of generative learning algorithms that model class or category input distribution. Decision trees in Naïve Bayes algorithms support regression and classification techniques.
- Neural networks, with many linked processing nodes, replicate the human brain and can do natural language translation, picture recognition, speech recognition, and image generation.
- Random forest methods combine decision tree results to predict a value or category.
2. Unsupervised machine learning
Apriori, Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs), and principal component analysis (PCA) use unlabeled datasets to make inferences, enabling exploratory data analysis, pattern detection, and predictive modeling.
Cluster analysis is the most frequent unsupervised learning method, which groups data points by value similarity for customer segmentation and anomaly detection. Association algorithms help data scientists visualize and reduce dimensionality by identifying associations between data objects in huge databases.
- K-means clustering organizes data points by size and granularity, clustering those closest to a centroid under the same category. Market, document, picture, and compression segmentation use K-means clustering.
- Hierarchical clustering includes agglomerative clustering, where data points are isolated into groups and then merged iteratively based on similarity until one cluster remains, and divisive clustering, where a single data cluster is divided by data point differences.
- Probabilistic clustering group’s data points by distribution likelihood to tackle density estimation or “soft” clustering problems.
Often, unsupervised ML models power “customers who bought this also bought…” recommendation systems.
3. Self-supervised machine learning
Self-supervised learning (SSL) lets models train on unlabeled data instead of enormous annotated and labeled datasets. SSL algorithms, also known as predictive or pretext learning algorithms automatically classify and solve unsupervised problems by learning one portion of the input from another. Computer vision and NLP require enormous amounts of labeled training data to train models, making these methods usable.
4. Reinforcement learning
Dynamic programming dubbed reinforcement learning from human feedback (RLHF) trains algorithms using reward and punishment. To use reinforcement learning, an agent acts in a given environment to achieve a goal. The agent is rewarded or penalized based on a measure (usually points) to encourage good behavior and discourage negative behavior. Repetition teaches the agent the optimum methods.
Video games often use reinforcement learning techniques to teach robots human tasks.
5. Semi-supervised learning
The fifth machine learning method combines supervised and unsupervised learning.
Semi-supervised learning algorithms learn from a small labeled dataset and a large unlabeled dataset because the labeled data guides the learning process. A semi-supervised learning algorithm may find data clusters using unsupervised learning and label them using supervised learning.
Semi-supervised machine learning uses generative adversarial networks (GANs) to produce unlabeled data by training two neural networks.
ML models can gain insights from company data, but their vulnerability to human/data bias makes ethical AI practices essential.
Manage multiple ML models with watstonx.ai.
Whether they employ AI or not, most people use machine learning, from developers to users to regulators. Adoption of ML technology is rising. Global machine learning market was USD 19 billion in 2022 and is predicted to reach USD 188 billion by 2030 (a CAGR of almost 37%).
The size of ML usage and its expanding business effect make understanding AI and ML technologies a key commitment that requires continuous monitoring and appropriate adjustments as technologies improve. IBM Watsonx.AI Studio simplifies ML algorithm and process management for developers.
IBM Watsonx.ai, part of the IBM Watsonx AI and data platform, leverages generative AI and a modern business studio to train, validate, tune, and deploy AI models faster and with less data. Advanced data production and classification features from Watsonx.ai enable enterprises optimize real-world AI performance with data insights.
In the age of data explosion, AI and machine learning are essential to corporate operations, tech innovation, and competition. However, as new pillars of modern society, they offer an opportunity to diversify company IT infrastructures and create technologies that help enterprises and their customers.